On 9 January 2005, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) was signed, which ended 20 years of conflict and led to South Sudan’s independence in 2011. However, in 2013 violence conflict broke out between government forces and opposition forces, igniting a civil war. The Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) was signed in 2018, but the agreement’s implementation is still currently in the early stages—with significant milestones being missed. In early 2020, a Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity was formed.
The civilian population of South Sudan is affected by local (communal violence) conflicts, economic challenges, food scarcity, and harsh weather conditions like flooding and increased temperature. However, several initiatives and actors are working on enhancing peace and reconciliation in South Sudan. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) has been heavily involved in the peace negotiations in South Sudan since 2005, with support of the AU, UN, and other actors. In 2013, the UN deployed a mission to South Sudan (UNMISS), the successor to UNMIS. In addition to other mandated areas, UNMISS assist the Ceasefire & Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring & Verification Mechanism in South Sudan (CTSAMVM), which is a partnership project between the African Union (AU) and the European Union (EU). The mechanism monitors and verifies the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA) signed in 2014 between the Government of South Sudan and the opposition. On this page, you will find the 2019 EPON study of UNMISS, and other related EPON partner studies of peacebuilding and stabilization initiatives in South Sudan.